Nov 29, 2009

नौलो संसार- १

(हर्क गुरुङ प्रत्येक बिकासप्रेमी नेपालीहरुको मनको अबिस्मरणिय नाम हो । हर्क गुरुङ लाई जसरी चिन्दा पनि हुन्छ भुगोलबिद, योजनाबिद, कार्टोग्राफर, पदयात्री वा संरक्षणकर्मी । लमजुङको तराँचेमा एउटा लाहुरे परिवारमा जन्मेका गुरुङ नेपाल को भुगोललाई सबैभन्दा नजिकबाट चिन्ने नेपाली हुन । पोखरा को भौगोलिक सर्बेक्षण बिषयमा विध्यावारीधी गरेका गुरुङ को यात्रा ब्रितान्त "The Vignette of Nepal" को नेपाली रुपान्तर "मैले देखेको नेपाल" म अहिले दोश्रो पटक पढिरहेको छु । यही पुस्तकका एकदमै मन छुने केही अंशहरु "Milan's Blog" का अबका केही पोस्टहरुमा । हुनत प्रतिलिपी अधिकारका अनेकन धाराहरुले यसलाई गैरकानुनी भन्न सक्छन तर म जस्ता आफ्नो देशको बारेमा बढी भन्दा बढी जानकारी राख्न चाहनेहरुका लागि यो प्रेरणादायक हुनेछ र हर्क गुरुङ प्रतिको साँचो श्रद्धान्जली पनि ।।।।।। यो पालोमा थाहा पाऔँ लम्जुङको सुदुर गाउँको "ठुला " ले देखेको नौलो संसारको कथा ।।।।। )

.....तराँचे मध्य नेपालको लमजुङ जिल्ला मा पर्ने एउटा सानो गाउँ हो, जुन गाउँ मर्स्याङ्दी नदिको देब्रे किनारमा अवस्थित छ। यस गाउँबाट केवल १४ किलोमिटर उत्तरमा मनासलु र हिमालचुलिका डरलाग्दा हिउँ चुचुराहरु देखिन्छन । हो, यही तराँचेमा ठुलाको जन्म भएको थियो । जहाँ उसका पिताले लाहुरे भएर कमाएको पैसाले राम्रो बन्दोबस्त गरेका थिए । पहिलो विश्वयुद्ध मा बुढा फ्रान्स र प्यालेस्टाइन पुगेका थिए र सन् १९१९ को बजिरिस्तानको लडाईंमा बहादुरी देखाएबापत उनको नाम सरकारी पत्रमा समेत उल्लेख गरिएको थियो । ठुलाका दुइजना दाजुहरुले पनि दोस्रो विश्वयुद्ध मा बर्मा र बोर्निओका जङगलहरुमा लडाईं गरिसकेका थिए । यसरी परिवारका दुबै पुस्ता लाहुरे भएकाले घरमा युद्धका थुप्रै तक्माहरु जम्मा भएका थिए र ठुला उनिहरुले युद्धमा गरेका बहादुरिका बखान सुन्ने गर्थ्यो । उनिहरुले बयान गरेका टाढा टाढाका अचम्म का ठाउँ र मानिसहरूका कुरा सुनेर ऊ मख्ख पर्थ्यो ।

मर्स्याङ्दीको गर्जना, गह्रै गह्रा परेका खेतबारिहरु र हिमरेखासम्म पुगेका बनले ढाकिएका पहाडहरुबिचको बातावरण मा त्यसबेला ठुला रहन्थ्यो । हिमालचुलिको सेतो टाकुरापछाडि के छ र मर्स्याङ्दीको डरलाग्दो भेल कहिले आउँछ भन्ने कुराको ज्ञान उसलाई धेरै कम थियो । साथीहरुसँग खेलिरहनु र गाउँ वरिपरि गाइबस्तुहरु चराइरहनुमा नै ऊ सन्तुस्ट देखिन्थ्यो । गाउँका केटाहरुमध्ये मानिएको अगुवा थियो ठुला । किनभने ऊ सबैभन्दा टाढा ढुङ्गा हान्न सक्दथ्यो । त्यस हुलमा आफ्नो उच्चता कायम राख्न ठुला सबभन्दा अग्लो रुख चढ्दथ्यो, सबभन्दा अग्लो कान्ला बाट हाम्फाल्दथ्यो र प्राय: उसले लडाईं पनि खेल्नुपर्ने हुन्ध्यो ।


ति केटाहरु स्वछन्दतापुर्वक घुमफिर गरिरहन्थे, गाउँका फलफुल चोर्थे र खोलामा माछा र गँगटाहरु मार्ने गर्थे । तिनिहरु युद्ध र सिकार तथा अन्य त्यस्तै खेलहरु खेल्दथे । एकपल्टको कुरो हो चराखेल खेल्दा ठुला निकै ठुलो दुर्घटनामा पर्‍यो । त्यस चराखेल मा ठुला चोर काग र अन्य केटाहरुचाहीँ गुँड बनाउने सानासाना चरा बनेका थिए । केटाहरुले गुँडहरु बनाएर त्यसमा ससाना गोलो बगरे ढुङ्गाका फुलहरु राखी लुक्न गए । जब ठुला गुँडका फुलहरु चोर्न रुखमा चढ्यो तब ति अन्य केटाहरु चराले झैँ हातका पखेटाहरु हल्लाउँदै छोरा काग बनेको ठुलालाई आक्रमण गर्न हुर्रिएर आए । त्यस मौकामा अत्तालिँदा ठुलाले आफुलाई उड्न सक्ने काग झैँ ठान्यो र रुखबाट एक्कासी हाम्फाल्यो । तर तल जमिनमा रहेको ठुलो ढुङ्गामा ऊ बेसरी बज्रिन पुग्यो र त्यसबाट उसको निधारमा निकै ठुलो चोट पर्न गयो । त्यो चोट केही महिनापछी निको भए पनि त्यसको दागचाहीँ सधैंका लागि रहिरह्यो ।

त्यसो भए पनि ठुलाको चकचकेपना र खेलवाडप्रतीको मोहलाई यस्ता दुर्घटनाहरुले घटाऊन सकेनन । चराचुरुङगीहरुलाई पासोमा पार्न ऊ सिपालु भएरै निस्क्यो र कोही बेला छिमेकिका कुखुराहरुको सिकार गर्न पनि ऊ हिचकिचाउँदैनथ्यो । वसन्त ऋतुमा साथीहरुसँग चराका गुँडहरु खोज्न जंगलतिर जान ऊ खुब मज्जा मान्थ्यो । तिनिहरु चराको गुँडमा तिनहाँगे काठ राखेर त्यसमा घोडाको पुच्छरका पासो थाप्थे र जब चरा गुँड मा बस्न आउँथ्यो त्यस पासोमा त्यो फस्दथ्यो । स साना बचेराहरु भएका गुँड भेटिएमा चाँहीँ तिनिहरुका माउ चराहरुलाइ कहिल्यै पासोमा फसाउँदैनथे र त्यसै छाडेर घर फर्किन्थे । बरु, ति बचेरा हरुको प्वाँख लागेपछी तिनलाई घरमा पाल्न ल्याउने गर्थे ।...........क्रमश:

Nov 15, 2009

Pokhara Declaration

The first international workshop on community forestry held in Pokhara, Nepal from September 15-18, 2009 concluded with eight-point declaration. About 200 representatives of diverse stakeholders from communities, governments, civil society

and other development partners from over 30 countries participated in the workshop.
Pokhara Declaration
Recognizing that local communities and indigenous peoples have demonstrated the capacity to organize and act towards sustainable management, utilization and democratic governance of forests; and their legitimate claims for the recognition of their land and forest rights worldwide.
Recognizing the wide range of institutional, entrepreneurial and governance innovations by communities and their partners;
Recognizing the emergence of grassroots networks, federations and associations influencing governance at different scales, and advocating for the rights of local, indigenous, poor and socially marginalized communities;
Recognizing the positive steps being taken by some governments to support community rights and initiatives through policies and legal frameworks

Admitting that creating equitable and inclusive livelihood outcomes is a long-term and challenging process in the face of prevailing social hierarchies, dominant private interests and state-centric governance legacies;
Recognizing the history of discrimination against women in forest and land laws, programs, policies, markets and institutions, as well as their strong contribution to forest conservation, livelihoods and development;
Acknowledging the positive role and potential of communities in achieving sustainable forest management and contributing to climate change adaptation and mitigation processes;
Affirming the importance of legally acknowledging and practically supporting the rights and responsibilities of communities to determine their own destiny in the sustainable development of their socioeconomic condition (livelihoods) and resources;
We, the 200 representatives of diverse stakeholders from communities, governments, civil society and other development partners from over 30 countries working in forestry and development, hereby declare that:
1.Governments and policy makers should guarantee the human, civil, customary and property rights of local people over land and forest resources, including the recognition of the authority of forest communities to identify and pursue their own development objectives, by incorporating these rights into national laws, constitutions and all forest policies and programs.
2.National governments have a responsibility to ensure the transparent and democratic governance of forests with active involvement and representation of communities, including poor, women, indigenous and socially marginalized groups, in policy formulation and regulatory decision-making.
3.Laws and regulatory practices should affirm and encourage local entrepreneurship by affirming full community ownership over forest and land resources, and by removing barriers to community and small-scale forest-based enterprises and the transportation and sale of their products.
4.Governments and the private sector should properly acknowledge, account for and financially reward the contributions of communities in creating environmental public goods; and foster financial mechanisms through which local communities can realize greater value from their forests, such as payments for various environmental services;
5.International and national climate change agreements, policies and mechanisms, including carbon trading, should respect local rights and privilege payment to local communities conserving forests.
6.Governments and community leaders must empower poor, women, indigenous and socially disadvantaged groups to exercise their rights, responsibilities and participate in decision-making at all levels of governance; and to ensure their fair access to markets and an equitable share of all benefits derived from the forest.
7.Government policy should promote the development of community-based forest management institutions and expand the area of forest under community rights and management.
8.Government, civil society, the private sector and donor organizations should work closely together to capitalize on the lessons of democratization and civic participation emerging from the experience of community forestry, to drastically revise institutions and processes for the democratic governance of the entire forest sector, a necessary step to achieve the globally desired outcomes of social, economic and environmentally sustainable development in the forested areas of the world.

Nov 12, 2009

एअरपोर्ट दैनिकी


बिहानै भालेको डाँकसँगै उठ्नु; एअरपोर्ट को गेट मा पुग्नु; एअरलाईन्सहरुको काउन्टरमा गएर बोल्दा पनि पैसा पर्ला जस्तो गर्ने रुखा कर्मचारीहरुसँग दबेको भाषामा जहाजको बारेमा बुझ्नु र निरास भएर फेरी होटल म फर्किनु दैनिकी जस्तै भएको छ गएको हप्ता देखी । ओहो सर अझै यतै ! हेर्नुन म आको त आज ११ दिन भै सक्यो, तपाईं कहिले देखी हो ! आज जान्छ रे त ! आज त चान्स नै भएन यार ! जस्ता वार्तालाप ले बिहान देखी साँझ नपरेसम्म पछ्याइरहन्छ । यो क्रम सधैं चलिरहेको छ कर्णाली जाने यात्रु (जनता र कर्मचारीहरु)को । हुनत दुर्गम भनेर धेरै कुराहरुमा प्राथमिकता र आरक्षण गरिएको छ कर्णाली र यहाँका नागरिकहरुलाई तर पनि वास्तविकता भोग्नेलाई मात्रै थाहा छ । कर्णालीमा जागिर सुरु गरेको १ बर्ष हुनै लाग्यो तर आवत जावतको यो समस्याले गर्दा यो समयको पनि राम्रै हिस्सा एअरपोर्ट (सुर्खेत र नेपालगन्ज) वरिपरी होटेल मा नै बसेर बितेको छ । यहिनै नियती हो कर्णालीमा बस्ने र काम गर्ने धेरै कर्मचारीहरुको, जनताको ।



कर्णाली का ५ जिल्ला हरु (कालिकोट, जुम्ला, हुम्ला, डोल्पा र मुगु) मध्य कालिकोट जिल्लामा मात्रै काम चलाऊ सडक पुगेको छ त्यो पनि सदरमुकाम पुग्न अझै ६, ७ घण्टा हिंड्नुपर्छ । हुनत सरकार र संचार माध्यमहरुले कर्णाली राजमार्ग (सुर्खेत जुम्ला सडक) को पनि धेरै नाम लीरहन्छन जुन बाटो बर्षको ५ महिना जती मात्र चल्छ त्यो पनि मालबाहक ट्रयाक्टर मात्रै, यसो भनौ कालिकोट र जुम्ला लाई सडकले छोएको छ । कालिकोटबाहेक बाँकी ४ जिल्लाहरुको यातायात को एकमात्र साधन सुर्खेत वा नेपालगन्ज बाट उड्ने हवाइजहाज र हेलिकप्टर मात्रै हो । हेलीकप्टर को भाडा सामान्य ब्यक्तिहरुले तिर्न सक्ने कुरा हुँदैन किनकी हवाइजहाज भन्दा ४ गुणा सम्म महँगो हुन्छ । त्यसपछी त एक मात्रै बिकल्प रह्यो हवाइजहाज ।

एअरलाईन्सको चर्तिकला:
कर्णालीको कालिकोट बाहेक अन्य जिल्ला पुग्ने यात्रुको हवाइ यात्रा बाहेक अर्को बिकल्प छैन । तर एअरलाईन्सहरुले जनता प्रतिको उत्तरदाइत्व पटक्कै छैन । हवाइजहाजहरु यात्रु बोक्नु भन्दा सरसामान नै बोक्न मन पराउँछन किनकी सामानहरुको भाडाबाट यात्रु को भन्दा धेरै कमाइ हुन्छ र बिमा लगायतका अन्य शुल्क पनि तिर्नु पर्दैन । सडक पुगेपनी जुम्ला र कालिकोट लगायत ५ वटै जिल्लाहरुका ब्यापारिक र निर्माण का सामाग्रीहरु हवाइ मार्गबाट नै ढुवानी गर्ने गरिन्छ । अझ विश्व खाध्य कार्यक्रम WFP को चामल पनि हवाइजहाज ले नै बोक्ने गर्छन् । तेसो हुँदा यात्रुहरुको लागि उडान गर्ने त एअरलाईन्सहरुको लागि समय नै हुँदैन । अनी त हप्तौँ हप्ता सम्म होटेल मा बसेर खर्च सक्नु बाहेक केही उपाय रहन्न यात्रु सँग । त्यस माथि झन बोल्दा पनी पैसा पर्ला जस्तो गर्ने एअरलाईनसका कर्मचारीहरुको रुखो व्यबहारले त झन निरास बनाउँछ । आज फ्लाइट छैन ! भोली? भोलीको कुरा भोली नै थाहा हुन्छ ! फ्लाइट भएनी आज मान्छेको छैन, चामल को हो ! तपाईंलाई सबै कुरा थाहा भए के सोधिराको त ! यस्तै यस्तै !

एक त अफिस मा उपस्थित हुन नसक्नुको पिडा अर्को होटेल मा आफ्नो तलब काटेर गर्नुपर्ने अनेकन अनावश्यक खर्चले त झन जागिर देखी नै निराशा नै उत्पन्न गराइदिन्छ । त्यस माथि झन टिकट को लागि अनेकन दलालिहरुलाई गर्नुपर्ने चाकरी को त कुरै नगरौ । यती गरेर पनी जागिर त खानै पर्‍यो । कर्णाली मा जागिर गर्ने एउटा कर्मचारीले बर्षको ३ महिना जती त एअरपोर्ट मा नै कुरेर बित्ने रहेछ ।
अली गहिरो गरी हेर्दा राज्य ले कर्णालीमा गरिरहेको लगानी असफल हुनुको पछाडि यो पनि एउटा कारण देखिन्छ । कती कर्मचारी समयमा अफिस पुग्न नपाएर बजेट फ्रिज भएको पनि धेरै घटना हरु छन कर्णाली मा । कहिले कर्णालीमा मोटर पुग्ला र जनता, कर्मचारी र सम्पूर्ण कर्णाली ले सुख पाउने दिन आउला ........???।

Nov 10, 2009

Say No To WFP


We have frequently heard about the United Nations World Food Program (WFP). WFP supplies food (rice, pulse and now even potatoes) to the remote districts of Nepal and in the World, where enough food cannot be grown for the whole year. This program supplying food for many districts of Nepal in the Name of Food For Work from East to West.
Karnali Zone and its surrounding are some of those districts of Nepal where WFP supplies food. Primarily WFP is another name of "Rice" in these districts. People know WFP as a rice supplier in Karnali and adjoining areas.
Seeing surfacely, it is one of the poor based program in Karnali and elsewhere in the world. But in depth it has played a significant negative role in the livelihood, economy, food habit and ultimately in the culture of people living there. Some of these negative effect of WFP are as follows and can be seen in these pictures too.


Expensive and Less possible Transportation:
WFP is giving high rate of transportation fare to the airlines so the airlines are only interested in carrying rice rather than passengers and other good for daily use. People in those areas have to wait couple of weeks to get the chance to board to home. Similarly, businessmen in karnali are paying high rate of fare which ultimately plays a significant role in the economy of people in remote as well as the livelihood.


Dependency only on Rice:
When the readymade rice can be obtained who wants to eat something else. So people in the remote continuously forgetting their traditional food like Millet, Barley, Maiz etc.

Expensive Wage Rate:
WFP pay comparativly high for labours and people working with them so it collapse the local wage rate in the district and subsistence becomes more difficult.

Less hygeinic Food:
Last time you also heared and watched the case of Jajarkot and Rukum. Many hundreds of people died of diarrea due to the expired food which was provided by the world food progrram. This sort of cases may next time to be occur because the monitoring systme of our nation is too too poor.

Abandoning Land:
Due to the readymade rice people continuously hesitating to farm. They even dont want to cultivate the traditional crops which are farming for centuries. They prefer the rice in subsidi rather than cultivate and grow food.

And last but not least the question is "How long it Will Sustain?". Its not about 5 or 10 years, its about centuries and hundreds of centuries. Its better to motivate people to grow thir own food what can be grown and make a habit to consume them. It is very efficient and sustainable than carrying the rice and pulse via aircrafts and helicopters.

Then Why WFP for remote? Its nonesence. Just avoide it.....


Nov 7, 2009

Innovation: Can technology persuade us to save energy?

If technology is to save us from climate change, it has some tough challenges to master: taming wave, wind and sun, cheaply scrubbing carbon dioxide from the air or mastering fusion.

But a growing number of people think another should be added to the list: mastering human nature. This "persuasive technology" would sway people to adopt less polluting behaviour and may come in the form of new gadgets and online services or new features for existing technology.

Energy savings from behavioural change can be dismissed as advanced marketing techniques and may seem trivial compared with the esoteric materials science that is needed to harvest solar energy more efficiently. But there is much to be gained.

Last week New Scientist reported that US emissions could be cut by more than 7 per cent if people changed their ways at home. Separate studies in US, Dutch and British homes have reported that 26 to 36 per cent of domestic energy use is "behavioural" – determined by the way we use machines, not the efficiency of the hardware itself.


This means that "machines designed to change humans", as the persuasive technology group of Stanford University, California, calls them, could save us huge amounts of energy and money.

Energy awareness
Many projects are trying to make that happen, with two main motivations. One is to understand which facets of human nature can be manipulated to change behaviour. The other is to develop technical strategies to do so.

A simple technique underlying many projects is to provide read-outs of people's energy use, in situations like the home where it has historically been hidden. It is well known that giving drivers feedback on fuel efficiency, for example, leads them to use less fuel. The information-rich dashboard of Toyota's hybrid Prius and Ford's new fuel-efficiency "vine", which grows leaves when you save fuel, are good examples of this approach. Studies of home power meters suggest they encourage homeowners to cut energy use by 10 per cent on average.

Persuasive tech that can track the effect of everything you do is the next logical step. For instance, a number of teams are working on cellphone apps that use GPS to guess what you're doing, and what that means for your carbon footprint.




Source: http://www.newscientist.com